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Step up to a Healthier You with the Haldimand-Norfolk Health Unit

Vascular Disease

Diabetes and Prediabetes 

What is Diabetes?

  • Your body cannot produce any or enough insulin or it cannot effectively use the insulin that it does produce, resulting in high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood.
  • Insulin is needed to break down glucose to use for energy the body requires to function.
  • High levels of glucose in the blood can damage organs, blood vessels and nerves. 

Types of Diabetes

Type 1

  • The pancreas does not make any insulin. 
  • Daily insulin injections are required for survival. It is managed with diet and activity.
  • 10% of people with diabetes have Type 1

Type 2

  • The pancreas does not make enough insulin or the insulin that it does produce does not work properly.
  • It is managed with diet, activity, medication and insulin in any combination.
  • 90% of people with diabetes have Type 2

Gestational Diabetes

  • Blood sugar levels are high in pregnancy and usually return to normal after the baby is born.
  • Women with gestational diabetes have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. 

What is Prediabetes?

  • The blood sugar level is above normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes.
  • It is managed with diet, activity and more recently with medication use.
  • Prediabetes used to be referred to as “borderline” or a “touch of sugar”.
  • Up to one-half of those with prediabetes may develop diabetes within 5 to 10 years.
  • There may be no symptoms of the blood sugar being high
Lab Values Indicate a Diagnosis of Diabetes





Fasting blood sugar

4.0 to 6.0

6.1 to 6.9

7.0 or greater

2hrs after meal

Up to 7.8

7.8 to 11.0

11.0 or greater

A1* test

6% or less

6.0 to 6.4

6.5% or greater

*A1is a blood test that indicates your overall blood glucose control over the past 3 months.