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Step up to a Healthier You with the Haldimand-Norfolk Health Unit

Vascular Disease

Diabetes and Prediabetes 

What is Diabetes?

  • Your body cannot produce any or enough insulin or it cannot effectively use the insulin that it does produce, resulting in high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood.
  • Insulin is needed to break down glucose to use for energy the body requires to function.
  • High levels of glucose in the blood can damage organs, blood vessels and nerves. 

Types of Diabetes

Type 1

  • The pancreas does not make any insulin. 
  • Daily insulin injections are required for survival. It is managed with diet and activity.
  • 10% of people with diabetes have Type 1

Type 2

  • The pancreas does not make enough insulin or the insulin that it does produce does not work properly.
  • It is managed with diet, activity, medication and insulin in any combination.
  • 90% of people with diabetes have Type 2

Gestational Diabetes

  • Blood sugar levels are high in pregnancy and usually return to normal after the baby is born.
  • Women with gestational diabetes have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. 

What is Prediabetes?

  • The blood sugar level is above normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes.
  • It is managed with diet, activity and more recently with medication use.
  • Prediabetes used to be referred to as “borderline” or a “touch of sugar”.
  • Up to one-half of those with prediabetes may develop diabetes within 5 to 10 years.
  • There may be no symptoms of the blood sugar being high
Lab Values Indicate a Diagnosis of Diabetes

 

Normal   

Prediabetes

Diabetes

Fasting blood sugar

4.0 to 6.0

6.1 to 6.9

7.0 or greater

2hrs after meal

Up to 7.8

7.8 to 11.0

11.0 or greater

A1* test

6% or less

6.0 to 6.4

6.5% or greater

*A1is a blood test that indicates your overall blood glucose control over the past 3 months.